Radicalism had its limits, and the Republican Party’s commitment to economic stability eclipsed their interest in racial justice. What rights did freedom confer on formerly enslaved people? In nearly every conflict, white conservatives initiated violence in reaction to Republican rallies or conventions or elections in which Black men were to vote. A case of sexual violence during Reconstruction, 1866. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Library of Congress. After the Civil War, much of the South lay in ruins. The Fourteenth Amendment signaled the federal government’s willingness to enforce the Bill of Rights over the authority of the states. Chapter 10 Summary - The American Yawp. Walt Whitman, 1855. Some of the material was burned, I know, but miles and miles of iron have actually disappeared, gone out of existence.”1 He might as well have been talking about the entire antebellum way of life. African American women continued participating in federal Decoration Day ceremonies and, later, formed their own club organizations. African Americans and Radical Republicans pushed the nation to finally realize the Declaration of Independence’s promises that “all men are created equal” and have “certain unalienable rights.” White Democrats granted African Americans legal freedom but little more. The era witnessed perhaps the most open and widespread discussions of citizenship since the nation’s founding. How would these states be brought back into the Union? Would they be conquered territories or equal states? Johnson, a states’-rights, strict-constructionist, and unapologetic racist from Tennessee, offered southern states a quick restoration into the Union. Alfred R. Waud, The First Vote, November 1867. After the Civil War, much of the South lay in ruins. Library of Congress. Perhaps the most significant internal transformation in churches had to do with the role of women—a situation that eventually would lead to the development of independent women’s conventions in Baptist, Methodist, and Pentecostal churches. Recognize a range of viewpoints in historical narratives. 1 The war touched the life of nearly every American as military mobilization reached levels never seen before or since. Celebrated May 19th 1870,”. Library of Congress. The federal government created the Freedmen’s Bureau to assist freed people in securing their rights and their livelihoods. The policy reversal came as quite a shock. You ask us to forgive the land owners of our island. Meanwhile, this washerwoman and others like her set wages and hours for themselves, and in many cases began to take washing into their own homes in order to avoid the surveillance of white women and the sexual threat posed by white men.28. With the rise of Jim Crow, Black churches would enter a new phase of negotiating relationships within the community and the wider world. White southerners demanded that African American women work in the plantation home and instituted apprenticeship systems to place African American children in unpaid labor positions. US History II (American Yawp) Reconstruction Search for: Video: Reconstruction and 1876 In this video, John Green teaches you about Reconstruction. While the fight for women’s rights stalled during the war, it sprung back to life as Anthony, Stanton, and others formed the American Equal Rights Association. How would these states be brought back into the Union? Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. While no one could agree on what the best plan for reconstructing the nation would be, Americans understood the moment as critical and perhaps revolutionary. This was not to say that Republican policy worked for everyone. The Homestead Act, meant to open the West to small farmers, was often frustrated by railroad corporations and speculators. Cotton fed the textile mills of America and Europe and brought great wealth to the region. Violence shattered the dream of biracial democracy. University of Virginia, The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave. In the excerpt below, Garrison Frazier, the chosen spokesman for the group, explains the importance of land for freedom. By 1871, Redeemers won political control and ended Reconstruction in three important states: Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia. In 1866, land that ex-Confederates had left behind was reinstated to them. Mississippi’s vagrant law, excerpted here, required all freedmen to carry papers proving they had means of employment. For a time, the federal government, its courts, and its troops, sought to put an end to the KKK and related groups. Treated rapidly and with all possible care, Lincoln nevertheless succumbed to his wounds the following morning, leaving a somber pall over the North and especially among African Americans. Others had helped enslaved people escape or taught them to read, like Georgia’s James D. Porter. On all other matters, the conventions could do what they wanted with no federal interference. There were riots in southern cities several times during Reconstruction. Racial violence, whether city riots or rural vigilantes, continued to threaten these vulnerable households. But they also denied fundamental rights. On the eve of the 1876 presidential election, the nation still reeled from depression. 3. The Morrill Land Grant helped create colleges such as the University of California, the University of Illinois, and the University of Wisconsin. Attempts to restore the antebellum economic order largely succeeded. 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