English courtiers at William III’s court became resentful when the Dutch-born Arnold Joost van Keppel became the king’s favourite. A new Parliament had to be called. As such, winters were incredibly cold, and the river Thames sometimes became so frozen solid that people were able to go out onto the ice and take part in frost fairs. Mary was not the only Stuart to lose her head. During the reign of Queen Anne, the last Stuart monarch, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, had become used to treating Anne badly. The persecution of witches began in England in 1563, and hundreds were executed. [109] Trade was extensive with France, the Low Countries, and the Baltic. Please enter your number below. William's goal was to build coalitions against the powerful French monarchy, protect the autonomy of the Netherlands (where William continued in power) and to keep the Spanish Netherlands (present-date Belgium) out of French hands. King James I (reigned 1603–25) was sincerely devoted to peace, not just for his three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, but for Europe as a whole. The main argument was that the Civil War was a challenge launched by the rising gentry class to overcome the power of the Crown and the aristocracy. Eikon Basilike was an extremely popular piece, and the deceased king became seen by some as a martyr. On assuming the throne, James made peace with Catholic Spain, and made it his policy to marry his son to the Spanish Infanta (princess) Maria Anna in the "Spanish Match". This second war cost London ten times more than it had planned on, and the king sued for peace in 1667 with the Treaty of Breda. King Charles I was beheaded in 1649. Bromley, ed. The intense hatred and rivalry of Catholic versus Protestant princes was the main cause. Although Cromwell did not subscribe to Harrison's apocalyptic, Fifth Monarchist beliefs – which saw a sanhedrin as the precondition of Christ's rule on earth – he was attracted by the idea of an assembly made up of a cross-section of sects. The best-known successful invasion by a foreign power was the Norman Conquest of 1066, which saw William the Conqueror seize power. [106] Data from the location of brides and grooms, the sources of financial credit, and patterns of migration indicate that each village was embedded in a network of villages and transportation routes. They were both essential. And it wasn’t just the executioner’s axe that cost leading Stuarts their heads – Monmouth’s cousin, James FitzJames, Duke of Berwick, was decapitated by a cannonball at the Siege of Philipsburg (aka Philippsburg) in 1734. [86][87][88] They argued that English witchcraft was endemic year in and year out, rather than happening in epidemic outbursts. Cromwell was aware of the contribution that Jewish financiers made to the economic success of Holland, now England's leading commercial rival. On his return, Cromwell tried to galvanise the Rump into setting dates for new elections, uniting the three kingdoms under one polity, and to put in place a broad-brush, tolerant national church. [1] The aristocracy was growing steadily in numbers, wealth, and power. “Parliamentary History in Perspective, 1604–1629,”. Anne, (born February 6, 1665, London, England—died August 1, 1714, London), queen of Great Britain and Ireland from 1702 to 1714, who was the last Stuart monarch. Social. It was this that led to his encouraging Jews to return to England, 350 years after their banishment, in the hope that they would help speed up the recovery of the country after the disruption of the Civil Wars.[28]. This was the second period of civil war in England’s history, the first being the Wars of the Roses fought between 1455 and 1487. ", Joyce Lorimer, "The failure of the English Guiana ventures 1595–1667 and James I's foreign policy. Executions were another popular entertainment of the day: vast crowds of people would gather to see a nobleman beheaded or a common thief hanged from the Tyburn tree. Charles gave out high offices in England with an eye toward favouring his longtime allies, and making sure his erstwhile enemies received at least some symbolic positions. The early modern period, in which the Stuart era firmly lies, was significantly more relaxed when it came to spelling than it is in the present day. In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603, the last of which was James VI, before his accession in England. Meanwhile, in the late 19th century, the remarkably high quality scholarship of archivally oriented historians, especially Samuel Rawson Gardiner and Charles Harding Firth had provided the rich details on national politics, practically on a day-by-day basis. [120], Lord Buckingham in the 1620s wanted an alliance with Spain. [21], In 1649–59 the dominant figure in England—although he refused the offer of kingship—was Oliver Cromwell, the highly successful Parliamentarian general. Skip to main content.ca. [81], The total population of England grew steadily in the 17th century, from 1600 to about 1660, then declined slightly and stagnated between 1649 and 1714. However, the trade losses became permanent. Instead of an argument that massive popular anger had built up in the early 17th century and caused the Civil War, the current approaches depict the early Stuart period as marked by harmony, good government, and popular support. The British gained the thriving colony of New Netherland, which was renamed as the Province of New York.[127][128]. In the meantime, with the king gone (and with him their common cause), the various factions in Parliament began to fight each other. Soon after, General Monck invaded London at the head of the army, and it was decided that England would welcome King Charles II from his exile. William encouraged the passage of major laws that protected personal liberties. The Parliament was based on an idea of Major-General Thomas Harrison's for a "sanhedrin" of saints. Public opinion in Scotland was generally hostile, but elite opinion was supportive, especially after the English provided generous financial terms and timely bribes. He remains a favourite topic of historians even as he is one of the most controversial figures in British history and his intense religiosity has long been out of fashion. Next, there was Mary Stuart, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. Other prominent enterprises included he East India Company (1599), and the Hudson's Bay Company (1670) in Canada. In 1625 Charles became the king of a land deeply involved in a European war and rent by escalating religious controversies. The city of London changed dramatically during the Stuart era after being largely destroyed in the Great Fire of London and rebuilt better than before. Across Europe, the German princes were banding together in the Protestant Union, headquartered in Heidelberg, the capital of the Electoral Palatinate. This timeline serves as a handy reference guide to the Stuart period, highlighting key historical events and moments in fashion history. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. Herein lay the problem for the early Stuarts, how to raise money to pay for the… The Acts of Union refunded the losses of the Scottish investors in Darien. So, which is correct? Mary, Queen of Scots, was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, in 1587. The Memoires, published in 1690 during the reign of William and Mary, was Pepys’ way of fighting back against his accusers. Truth be told, they are both acceptable, but it makes it easier to stick to the Gallicised (French) version to help differentiate between the Stewart line in Scotland, and those Stewarts who became monarchs over both England and Scotland, beginning in 1603. The British gained dominance in the trade with India, and largely dominated the highly lucrative slave, sugar, and commercial trades originating in West Africa and the West Indies. [60][61] For his entire career in Netherlands and Britain, William was the arch-enemy of Louis XIV. Queen Elizabeth I had nominated King James VI of Scotland, her successor. In the medieval period, raw wool had been exported, but now England had an industry, based on its 11 million sheep. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000 soldiers, and then to 94,000 in 1694. Andrea Zuvich is the author of The Stuarts in 100 Facts. The Stuarts were monarchs of Britain and Ireland and its growing empire until the death of Queen Anne in 1714, except for the period of the Commonwealth between 1649 and 1660. The yellow bars show Stuart rule. Marxists downplayed the religious dimension. Constitutionally, the wars convinced everyone that an English monarch cannot govern alone, nor could Parliament. 25 years of Jacobite studies. Charles II cancelled their charters and imposed centralised rule through the Dominion of New England. This is the time when Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan, led Parliament, who ruled the nation. In 1685, he led an invasion of England, seeking to overthrow his uncle King James II, in order to take the throne for himself. [55] It did not, however, extend toleration as far as he wished, still restricting the religious liberty of Roman Catholics, non-trinitarians, and those of non-Christian faiths. Services . The third lesson was that England needed protection against organised political violence. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. For the European context, see J.S. The new Britain used its power to undermine the clanship system in the Scottish Highlands [79] Ambitious Scots now had major career opportunities in the fast-growing overseas British colonies, and in the rapidly growing industrial and financial communities of England. Historians now give much more emphasis to religiosity, and to the diversity of local situations. ", Cressy, David. William died just as the continuation war, the War of the Spanish Succession, (1702–1714), was beginning. Politicized mobs in London, or popular revolts in the rural areas, were too unpredictable and too dangerous to be tolerated. [43], The King and Parliament agreed on a general pardon, the Indemnity and Oblivion Act (1660). Fast-forward to 1688, and Britain was once again successfully invaded – this time by the Dutch, and by invitation. [76], Scotland and England were entirely separate countries, having the same ruler since 1603. In a few years it moved to a private business office that eventually became the famous insurance exchange Lloyd's of London. The great majority of the Irish population remained Catholic, but James promoted heavy Protestant migration from Scotland into the Ulster region. At the restoration, Parliament paid off Cromwell's army and disbanded it. Parliament became very nervous, and reduced the cadre to 7,000 in 1697. For summaries of foreign policy see J.R. Jones, Joseph Hone, "Isaac Newton and the Medals for Queen Anne. Spain's ambassador Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, 1st Count of Gondomar knew how to manipulate the king. [23], After the execution of the King, a republic was declared, known as the Commonwealth of England. You may find it useful to refer back to as you progress through the week. Cromwell had used his standing army to take full personal control, and so it was much to be feared as a threat to traditional liberties. [65][66] In the long-running Nine Years' War (1688–97) his main strategy was to form a military alliance of England, the Netherlands, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and some smaller states, to attack France at sea, and from land in different directions, while defending the Netherlands. [14] The king finally crossed the line of legality when he began to levy "ship money", intended for naval defences, upon interior towns. That being said, on the death warrant for James’s son, King Charles I, in 1649, his name was written “Charles Stewart”. [48], England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. Private investors created the Bank of England in 1694; it provided a sound system that made financing wars much easier by encouraging bankers to loan money. Clark argued that in exchange for the financial benefits and bribes that England bestowed, what it gained was: By the time Samuel Johnson and James Boswell made their tour in 1773, recorded in A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, Johnson noted that Scotland was "a nation of which the commerce is hourly extending, and the wealth increasing" and in particular that Glasgow had become one of the greatest cities of Britain. They were forced to pay, including Oliver Cromwell among thousands of other country gentlemen across rural England. "'Giants of an Earlier Capitalism': The Chartered Trading Companies as Modern Multinationals. 7 things you (probably) didn’t know about Samuel Pepys, Coffee, plague and the Great Fire: the pleasures and perils of Restoration London, Accidental explosions: gunpowder in Tudor and Stuart London, Christmas carols: the history behind 9 festive favourites, Fishing for gold: how eels powered the medieval economy, A very brief history of witches by Suzannah Lipscomb. There are some who swear it must be spelled Stewart, as it comes from the word “steward”, while others insist it must be spelled Stuart. With the exception of Henrietta Maria, Charles I’s strong-willed consort (who remains a controversial figure), many tend to forget about the other royal consorts. The first basic lesson was that the king and the parliament were both needed, for troubles cumulated when the king attempted to rule alone (1629–1640), when Parliament ruled without a king (1642–1653) or when there was a military dictator (1653–1660). The terms of the settlement included giving the King a fixed annual payment of £1.2 million; Scotland and Ireland added small additional amounts. ", William Monter, "Re-contextualizing British witchcraft.". By 1628 he and Buckingham had transformed the political landscape. Van Keppel, although a blatant womaniser, was the subject of rumours involving him with the king. In the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–67) Dutch naval victories followed. Judges across England sharply increased their investigation of accused 'witches', thus generating a body of highly detailed local documentation that has provided the main basis for recent historical research on the topic. Often a source of some very heated debate in online history groups, the spelling of this surname is rather contentious, to say the least. George was devoted to his wife, but has retained a somewhat boorish reputation. Throughout the chaos of the Civil Wars in the 1640s, Matthew Hopkins, the self-appointed ‘witchfinder general’, terrorised East Anglia with the cruel methods he used to ‘find’ witches: according to some sources he would fling the accused bound into water to see if they would float or sink (a witch, having denied his or her baptism, would be repelled by the water so that he or she would float). 1. The Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa had been set up in 1662 to trade in gold, ivory and slaves in Africa; it was reestablished as the Royal African Company in 1672 and focused on the slave trade. It ended in 1714 (after 111 years) with the death of Queen Anne and the accession of King George I, the first king of the House of Hanover. The British also captured numerous Dutch merchant ships. The Stuarts loved collecting art. The 13 American colonies provided land for migrants, masts for the navy, food for the West Indies slaves, and tobacco for the home and the re-export trades. • Bucholz, Robert, and Newton Key. The monarchy was temporarily displaced by the Commonwealth of England from 1649 to 1660. His brother James II was overthrown in 1689 in the Glorious Revolution. [9] Like his father, King Charles believed in the divine right of kings to rule, and one was unable to work successfully with Parliament. This was George of Hanover, grandson of James I. Tudors Hanoverians. She was Queen Elizabeth I’s cousin, and when Mary was found guilty of treason [after being accused of involvement in a plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth], the English queen agonised over the signing of the execution warrant. The House of Stuart produced six monarchs who ruled during this period. Quickly the ban was lifted, and the Merchant Adventurers got its monopoly back. There seems to be a problem, please try again. [22] He worked hard at the time to ensure good publicity for his reign, and his successful wars. Another test was to “force the accused to walk about all night, because only when at rest could a witch summon his or her familiars, who would terrify the accusers away”. Visit Tudor Rose and Find out more! His closest foreign-policy advisers were Dutch, most notably William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland; they shared little information with their English counterparts. James however, was content to enjoy all the majesty and splendor but was without the means to support it. Mary, Queen of Scots used Stuart, and she was both a queen of Scotland and a queen of France, so using the Gallicised spelling makes sense because the letter ‘W’ is rarely found in French. The country gentry continued to form the basis of support for the Church of England, and for what became the Tory party. ", Christopher Durston, "The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals,", Nathan Osterman, "The Controversy over the Proposed Readmission of the Jews to England (1655). The Third Civil War was fought between supporters of his son Charles II and Parliament and ended at … [8], King James was failing in physical and mental strength, because of this he was often mocked by his family and his own father would throw objects at him when he would try to stand up, and decision-making was increasingly in the hands of Charles and especially George Villiers (1592–1628), (he was Earl of Buckingham from 1617 and Duke from 1623). Prince William of Orange, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, had a reputation for being one of the great heroes of Protestant Europe. He thus planned to have a foot in both camps and be able to broker peaceful settlements. You're now subscribed to our newsletter. Also known as Bonfire Night or Firework Night, Guy Fawkes is celebrated every year on the 5th of November in England (and some other countries). [75] She began the practice of awarding high-quality gold medals as rewards for outstanding political or military achievements. [97] The theatres returned, and played a major role in high society in London, where they were patronised by royalty. Oliver Cromwell ruled directly from 1653 to his death in 1658, whereupon his Commonwealth disintegrated. [123], During 1600–1650 the kings made repeated efforts to colonise Guiana in South America. [40], The Restoration of 1660 was a deliberate return to the stability of the early 17th century. From the middle of 1649 until 1651, Cromwell was away on campaign. ", Lake, Peter. Meanwhile, discoveries and innovations transformed science, architecture and everyday life. The marriage of James' daughter Princess Elizabeth to Frederick V, Elector Palatine on 14 February 1613 was more than the social event of the era; the couple's union had important political and military implications. Parliament passed the Witchcraft Act 1735 which made it a crime to accuse someone of witchcraft. Kishlansky, Mark A. and John Morrill. Clayton Roberts, David Roberts, and Douglas R. Bisson, David Coast, "Rumor and 'Common Fame': The Impeachment of the Duke of Buckingham and Public Opinion in Early Stuart England. Upon the Restoration in 1660, and then much more substantially at the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688 when William of Orange invaded and seized James II’s throne, monarchy changed from the absolute version to something more constitutional. Sadly for the young family, Willem II contracted smallpox and died about a week before his son’s birth. [44], Religious issues proved the most difficult to resolve. They inherited their titles through primogeniture, had a favoured position in legal matters, enjoyed the highest positions in society, and held seats in the House of Lords. Historian JD Davies, writing in the introduction to a 2010 publication of this work, states that the Memoires provide not only “a vivid insight into the state of the navy in the 1680s, but…(is) one of the best memorials to the ingenuity and sheer political cunning” of Pepys. Down until 1710, the Parliament was dominated by the "Whig Junto" coalition. Numerous architects worked on the decorative arts, designing intricate wainscoted rooms, dramatic staircases, lush carpets, furniture, and clocks that are still be seen in country houses open to tourism. "Revisionists" came to the fore, rejecting both Whig and Marxist approaches because they assumed historical events were the automatic playing out of mysterious forces such as "liberty"and "class conflict. What they got instead was the vision of William of Orange, shared by most leading Englishmen, that emphasised consent of all the elites, religious toleration of all Protestant sects, free debate in Parliament and aggressive promotion of commerce. Learn more about the Stuarts - History for Kids. But how much do you know about the Stuarts? The Duchess took revenge in an unflattering description of the Queen in her memoirs as ignorant and easily led, which was a theme widely accepted by historians until Anne was re-assessed in the late 20th-century. ")[119] At the time, Europe was deeply polarised, and on the verge of the massive Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), with the smaller established Protestant states facing the aggression of the larger Catholic empires. He successfully kept Britain out of the European-wide war that proved so heavily devastating for three decades. [85], The government made witchcraft a capital crime under Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1563. [114][115][116], Government intervention proved a disaster in the early 17th century. He forbade any interpretation of church doctrine different to his own and made Sunday Church-going compulsory. [54] of the Toleration Act 1689, which guaranteed religious toleration to Protestant nonconformists. [105], Historians have always emphasised the localism in rural England, with readers gaining the impression that the little villages were self-contained communities. In his naïveté, he did not realise that both sides were playing him as a tool for their own goal of achieving the destruction of the other side. Anne reacted by dismissing Marlborough and Godolphin and turning to Robert Harley. The war period (1642–1651) saw a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists, with most of the fighting in England. ", Peter Burke, "Popular culture in seventeenth-century London. The Second English Civil War was fought in 1648–1649; Charles lost and the execution of Charles I took place in January 1649. After 1840, the coming of railroads enlarged the range of local networks so much that the localism was overwhelmed[107]. [99] Downtown London boasted about 600 by 1708. In England, hearth tax, also known as hearth money, chimney tax, or chimney money, was a tax imposed by Parliament in 1662, to support the Royal Household of King Charles II.Following the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Parliament calculated that the Royal Household needed an annual income of £1,200,000. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. Compulsory knighthood had been established in the Middle Ages when men of certain wealth were ordered to become knights in the king's service, or else pay a fine. Parliament closed down the harsh special courts that Charles had used before 1642, such as the Star Chamber, Court of High Commission, and the Council of the North. London and towns purchased wool from dealers, and send it to rural households where family labour turned it into cloth. He cut the usual budget but it was not nearly enough. Charles reinstated the bishops, but also tried to reach out to the Presbyterians. In the 17th century, a substantial portion of the population believed that witchcraft was real and dangerous. Their position was further harmed by a tax proposal by Major General John Desborough to provide financial backing for their work, which Parliament voted down for fear of a permanent military state. The period ended with the death of Queen Anne and the accession of King George I from the German House of Hanover. The First English Civil War of 1642–1645 ended in victory for the Parliamentarians over the Royalists (often called "Cavaliers"). Literacy rates were very low before 1500, but grew steadily in the next three centuries, with men twice as likely to be literate as comparable women. Together they comprised about 2% of the families, owned most of the good farmland, and controlled local government affairs. Sometimes known as the Parliament of Saints, it was also called the Barebones Parliament. But while the king tried to build up a small standing army, Parliament kept a very close, nervous watch. You can follow Andrea on Twitter @17thCenturyLady or visit her website www.andreazuvich.com. "The Later Stuarts: 1660–1714," in Richard Schlatter, ed., Burgess, Glenn. [110] The English colonies in the West Indies provided sugar, most of which was re-exported to the Continent. Inigo Jones is the most famous. Then he discovered a series of ingenious methods to raise money without permission of Parliament. [70][71] For practically her entire reign, the central issue was the War of the Spanish Succession in which Britain played a major role in the European-wide alliance against Louis XIV of France. [62] In May 1689, William, now king of England, with the support of Parliament, declared war on France. He also became king of Ireland, but the English were just reestablishing lost control there. The 15 major generals and deputy major generals—called "godly governors"—were central to Cromwell's moral crusade beginning in October 1655. Parliament did impose an entirely new excise tax on alcoholic beverages that raise substantial sums, as did the customs, for foreign trade was flourishing. King Charles acted with moderation and self-restraint, and with energy and attention to details. Ultimately, however, Cromwell's failure to support his men, sacrificing them to his opponents, caused their demise.[27]. They all failed and the lands (Suriname) were ceded to the Dutch Republic in 1667. Throughout British history, the royal favourite was lavished with titles, estates, money and above all, power. Key date: 24 March – Elizabeth I dies at Richmond Palace. However, King Charles managed to pull together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122.000 from his general budget. These non-Anglican Protestants continued as a political factor, with its leaders moving toward what became the Whig party. Buckingham and Charles were humiliated and Buckingham became the leader of the widespread British demand for a war against Spain.
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